Posts Tagged ‘history’
Learn about Amtgard Beginnings in this free series of live role playing game tips from our longtime Amtgard rpg player and kingdom organizer. Expert: Austin Harmon Bio: Austin Harmon has been an avid Amtgard player for 15 years, as well as an officer and organizer of local kingdoms. He knows the ins and outs of this live action role playing game. Filmmaker: Kenny Saylors
Conspiracy The Secret History, Vol. 1 – Masters of the Universe: The Secret Birth of The Federal Reserve [VHS]
Conspiracy The Secret History, Vol. 1 – Masters of the Universe: The Secret Birth of The Federal Reserve [VHS]
Was there a takeover of the United States by international bankers? In this program you will pay a visit to the scene of a crime so perfect that, for thirty years, no one knew it had even taken place. Join us as we investigate the birth of a criminal conspi
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The history of Children’s Ride on Toys from today to the past
The earliest ride on toys have been around as long as the automobile. Bicycles and tricycles have always been and still are very popular choices for pre-schoolers and adolescents of a variety of ages. Pedal cars, scooters, and wagons are all popular rides on toys that date back to the 1930s and remain popular today. The variety and materials of the riding toy has varied over generations and popularity of these toys has seen surges and waning over periods, but they always come back to popularity eventually.
Pedal cars have been around since the 1930s and were originally designed to resemble real life models of popular vehicles of the time. Children loved the idea of feeling grown up and grownups love watching their children emulate adult actions because it is cute and endearing.
The popularity of the pedal car lasted three decades before there was a decline in popularity due to change in materials from steel to plastic. Today there is resurgence in the popularity of this ride on toy as they are being made from their original designs, along with new models coming out.
Bicycles and tricycles are timeless classic ride on toys that have never seen a decline in popularity. Adult tricycles are becoming very popular for the senior community, but the smaller counterpart is designed for pre-schoolers and is a very fun way for a child to exercise and get around on.
Bicycles come in many varieties and there are even specific bicycles for trick riding, dirt riding, mountain biking, street riding and much more. Scooters and wagons like the radio flyer have been out as long as bicycles and tricycles.
In 1969, the Big Wheel was introduced at a toy fair and gained almost immediate success. A similar version of the Big Wheel was produced by a rival company, but the two companies eventually merged to form the Empire Company.
The Big Wheel was popular in the 70s through the 90s and this three wheeled fun machine has a super large wheel in the front and two wide wheels in the back. It is constructed mostly of plastic and early models of this product had a short life due to plastic breaking down.
Today’s ride-on toys include a variety of battery operated vehicles from toy motorcycles to ATVs, jeeps, and cars. These toys serve to make the child feel even more grown up than pedal cars and bicycles because they have to use steering, a gas and brake pedal. For all intents and purposes it’s as close to real driving as a very young child can get legally get to driving. They require an intense amount of absolute adult supervision.
The popularity of certain ride on toys ebb and fade, but the reality is that pedal cars are still popular with both children and adults who collect them. Bicycles will always retain their appeal; the scooter has regained their popularity since the 1990s. The most appealing quality of manual ride on toys is that they are foot powered and provide a child with hours of adventurous outdoor exercise and down to earth fun.
Scottie is a intermittent author, writing occassional columns in the UK. The complete range of wheely bug ride on toys as well as baby accessories are available with free delivery at Designer Ark. For more information please visit the Designer Ark website.
Scottie is a part time writer who pens articles and copy for a variety of sectors.
Masters of the Universe Brief History
Masters of the Universe is usually edited to MOTU or else it’s additionally occasionally known as He-Man, which is the name of the focal star. Masters of the Universe Action Figures are a collection produced by Mattel. It features characters like Skeletor and He-Man on the planet of Eternia. Following its initial debut in the 1980s, Masters of the Universe has brought out an range of goods that has half dozen diverse lines of Masters of the Universe action figures, a number of comicbook serial publications, 4 animated Tv programs, in addition to a film. Although not officially acknowledged by Mattel, designer Roger Sweet states he’s the chief architect of Masters of the Universe. The first comics & a heap of the first back story had been penned by Donald F. Glut.
Mattel also spot out a MOTU action figure line sculpted by the 4 Horsemen. That line of action figures was marvelously faithful to the original product line, with the action figures lightly updated in their detail instead of becoming fully redesigned.
1 reality of disagreement of fans of the primary MOTU produt line is that the uncharacteristic new style of the Power Sword of He-Man . Instead of the customary figure He-Man now had a huge mecha sword inspired by anime that a lot fanatics (thought|felt|identified} dreadful as well as unsuited. The 4 Horsemen defended the style saying, it came from their initial re-sculpts being meant as a continuation of the original storyline in that Skeletor had got each sections from the Power Sword therefore this Skeletor action figure’s double swords with clearly sensible & evil designs for the hilt. That intended a new blade to be produced by Man-At-Arms and empowered with the attributes of the original by the Sorceress. But, Mattel decided that they sought to revise for a subsequent generation set of fans. Thus the distinctive Power Sword idea became the common adaptation for the newest age group.
The product line faithfulness to the original set of action figures produced it to be truly hip for collectors, but, advising it’d've been greater targeted for a collector-based product line, connected to D.C. Direct. This hypothesis was supported in the consequences of the end of the mass-market action figure line. NECA took the reasonably new measure of carrying on the action figure line by action figure size statues sculpted and scaled to be esthetically appropriate for exhibit next to the Mattel action figures, as a result permiting fans to finish their collections with later 4 Horsemen re-developed characters that had as however to be brought forth as action figures when the merchandise line was referred to as off. According to an question-&-answer with a Mattel spokesperson, NECA proposed to manufacture totally-articulated action figures for Mattel with out accepting any recognition, however permission was denied. Rather, NECA was just permitted to generate statues that had been non-articulated.
The merchandise line was began by Roger Sweet, who handled the merchandise line from its total initial run. The He-Man action figure comprised three individual action figures such as a modern-day armed forces man, a conventional kind barbaric, in addition to a ultramodern astronaut. The barbaric action figure was the best-selling, nevertheless the broad strategy was chosen soon after a prime Mattel executive said to the designs of the action figures and exclaimed, “those have the energy” That became a idiom that the cartoon would rephrase as He-Man’s famed catchphrase, “I have the energy!”
Early literature from Mattel names Skeletor and his following as the “Masters of the Universe” along with an prior edition of the opening title sequence for the nineteen eighties version likewise employs this description, and was employed on the video copy of the past installment “The Dragon Invasion.” But, subsequent spinoffs use the phrase “Masters of the Universe with HeMan & his buddies”. Program author Robby London has remarked that he discovered the variation in description, and considers every single side of good or evil to cover the “Masters of the Universe.” The 80s live action motion picture has as but a totally different reading of the expression, as the beginning narrative says that whomever inhabits Castle Grayskull will have the capability, and this’ll label them “masters of the universe.”
The action figures were usually head-swaps & new paint jobs of existent figures, made with different equipment for instance, Stinkor was earlier a color-swap of Mer-Man getting a re-colored revision of Mekaneck’s aegis. For the majority of the original merchandise line, there was limited molds includeing two chest molds, 1 mold of belt and shorts, and 3 sets of claw fingered, smooth, and hairy arms and legs. Teela got her own mold, that was afterward repeated as Evil-Lyn. But Right after the second line came along, numerous new casts where utilised.
For much more, check out my Masters of the Universe Action Figure Blog
For far more, check out my Masters of the Universe Action Figure Blog.
The inspiration for the earliest dirt bike, and arguably the first motorcycle, was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885. The first petroleum-powered vehicle, it was essentially a motorized bicycle, although the inventors called their invention the Reitwagen (“riding carriage”). They had not set out to create a vehicle form but to build a simple carriage for the engine, which was the focus of their endeavours.
However, if one counts two wheels with steam propulsion as being a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American. One such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern United States in 1867, built by Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts.
There exists an example of a Roper machine dating from 1869, but there is no patent existing and nothing proves it was a working model. It was powered by a charcoal-fired two-cylinder engine, whose connecting rods directly drive a crank on the rear wheel. The Roper machine pre-dates the invention of the safety bicycle by many years, so its chassis is based on the “boneshaker” bike.
In 1868, the French engineer Louis-Guillaume Perreaux patented a similar steam-powered vehicle, which was probably invented independent of Roper’s. In this case, although a patent exists that is dated 1868, nothing indicates the invention had been operable before 1871. Nevertheless, these steam-powered vehicles were invented prior to the first petroleum-powered motorcycle.
An 1894 Hildebrand & Wolfmller
The English persisted with steam powered bikes into the Edwardian period. Pearson and Cox was one firm that made units until the First World War.
First commercial products
In the decade from the late 1880s, dozens of designs and machines emerged, particularly in France, Germany and England, and soon spread to America.
During this early period of motorcycle history, there were many manufacturers since bicycle makers were adapting their designs for the new internal combustion engine.
In 1894, the Hildebrand & Wolfmller became the first motorcycle available to the public for purchase. However, only a few hundred examples of this motorcycle were ever built. Soon, as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle-oriented producers increased.
The first known motorcycle in the United States was said to be brought to New York by a French circus performer, in 1895. It weighed about 200 lb (91 kg) and was capable of 40 mph (64 km/h) on a level surface. However, that same year, an inventor from the United States E.J. Pennington demonstrated a motorcycle of his own design in Milwaukee. Pennington claimed his machine was capable of a speed of 58 mph (93 km/h), and is credited with inventing the term “motor cycle” to describe his machine.
The 20th century
Before World War II
A 1913 FN (Fabrique National), Belgium, 4cylinders and shaft drive
In 1901 English quadricycle and bicycle maker Royal Enfield introduced its first motorcycle, with a 239 cc engine mounted in the front and driving the rear wheel through a belt. In 1898, English bicycle maker Triumph decided to extend its focus to include motorcycles, and by 1902, the company had produced its first motorcycle bicycle fitted with a Belgian-built engine. In 1903, as Triumph’s motorcycle sales topped 500, the American company Harley-Davidson started producing motorcycles.
In 1904, the Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Company, which had been founded by two former bicycle racers, designed the so-called “diamond framed” Indian Single, whose engine was built by the Aurora Firm in Illinois. The Single was made available in the deep red color that would become Indian’s trademark. By then, Indian’s production was up to over 500 bikes annually and would rise to 32,000, its best ever, in 1913.
During this period, experimentation and innovation were driven by the popular new sport of motorcycle racing, with its powerful incentive to produce tough, fast, reliable machines. These enhancements quickly found their way to the public machines.
A 1923 BMW R32, with a shaft-drive, boxer twin engine
Chief August Vollmer of the Berkeley, California Police Department is credited with organizing the first official Police Motorcycle Patrol in the United States in 1911. By 1914, motorcycles were no longer just bicycles with engines; they had their own technologies, although many still maintained bicycle elements, like the seats and suspension.
A pre-war Polish Sok 1000
An historic V-twin American motorcycle a 1941 Crocker
Until the First World War, Indian was the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. After that, this honor went to Harley-Davidson, until 1928 when DKW took over as the largest manufacturer. BMW motorcycles came on the scene in 1923 with a shaft drive and an opposed-twin or “boxer” engine enclosed with the transmission in a single aluminum housing.
By 1931, Indian and Harley-Davidson were the only two American manufacturers producing commercial motorcycles. This two-company rivalry in the United States remained until 1953, when the Indian Motorcycle factory in Springfield, Massachusetts closed and Royal Enfield took over the Indian name.
There were over 80 different makes of motorcycle available in Britain in the 1930s, from the familiar marques like Norton, Triumph and AJS to the completely obscure, with names like New Gerrard, NUT, SOS, Chell and Whitwood, about twice as many motorcycle makes competing in the world market during the early 21st century.
In 1937, Joe Petrali set a new land speed record of 136.183 mph (219.165 km/h) on a modified Harley-Davidson 61 cubic inch (1000 cc) overhead valve-driven motorcycle. The same day, Petrali also broke the speed record for 45 cubic inch (737 cc) engine motorcycles.
In Europe, production demands, driven by the buildup to World War II, included motorcycles for military use, and BSA supplied 126,000 BSA M20 motorcycles to the British armed forces, starting in 1937 and continuing until 1950. Royal Enfield also produced motorcycles for the military, including a 125 cc lightweight motorcycle that could be dropped (in a parachute-fitted tube cage) from an aircraft.
After World War II
An original Vespa with sidecar
After the Second World War, some American veterans found a replacement for the camaraderie, excitement, danger and speed of life at war in motorcycles. Grouped into loosely organized clubs, motorcycle riders in the U.S. created a new social institutionhe motorcyclists or “bikers”hich was later skewed by the “outlaw” persona Marlon Brando portrayed in the 1954 film The Wild One.
In Europe, on the other hand, post-war motorcycle producers were more concerned with designing practical, economical transportation than the social aspects, or “biker” image. Italian designer Piaggio introduced the Vespa in 1946, which experienced immediate and widespread popularity. Imports from the UK, Italy and Germany, thus found a niche in U.S. markets that American bikes did not fill.
The BSA Group purchased Triumph Motorcycles in 1951 to become the largest producer of motorcycles in the world claiming “one in four”. The German NSU was the largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s when Honda became the largest manufacturer title now claimed by Indian bike firm Hero Honda, which specialises in small motorcycles throughout India and similar markets.
A 1962 Triumph Bonneville represents the popularity of British motorcycles at that time
British manufacturers Triumph, BSA, and Norton retained a dominant position in some markets until the rise of the Japanese manufacturers (led by Honda) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The role of the motorcycle shifted in the 1960s, from the tool of a life to a toy of a lifestyle. It became part of an image, of status, a cultural icon for individualism, a prop in Hollywood B-movies.
The motorcycle also became a recreational machine for sport and leisure, a vehicle for carefree youth, not essential transportation for the mature family man or woman, and the Japanese were able to produce modern designs more quickly, more cheaply, and of better quality than their competitors. Their motorbikes were more stylish and more reliable, so the British manufacturers fell behind as mass-market producers.
The Honda Motor Co., which was officially founded in Japan on September 24, 1948, introduced their SOHC inline 4-cylinder 750 in 1969, which was inexpensive and immediately successful. It was not a high-performance bike, but it established the across-the-frame-4 engine configuration as a design with huge potential for power and performance. Despite being much more complex than any other mass-market motorcycle, it was the most reliable large motorcycle on the road.
Shortly after the introduction of the SOHC, Kawasaki demonstrated the potential of the four-cycle four-cylinder engine with the introduction of the KZ900. The only motorcycle that outperformed the KZ900 was another Kawasaki, the H1, a much smaller and lighter 3-cylinder, two-cycle engine. The H1 was prone to fouling, and was considered dangerous by many riders.
The Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd., Kawasaki Heavy Industries and the Yamaha Motor Corporation each started producing motorcycles in the 1950s. Meanwhile, the sun was setting on British dominion over the big-displacement motorbike market.
The Honda CB750 revolutionized motorcycle marketing and was emblematic of Japanese dominance
The excellence of Japanese motorcycles caused similar effects in all “Western” markets: many Italian bike firms either went bust or only just managed to survive. As a result BMW’s worldwide sales sagged in the 1960s, but came back strongly with the introduction of a completely redesigned “slash-5″ series for model year 1970.
From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of the East German Walter Kaaden’s engine work in the 1950s, later acquired by Suzuki via stolen plans supplied by MZ rider Ernst Degner, who defected to the West on 13th September 1961 after retiring from the 125cc Swedish Grand Prix at Kristianstad.
Harley-Davidson (HD) in the U.S. at the time suffered from the same problems as the European firms, but its unique product range, American tariff laws and nationalism-driven customer loyalty allowed it to survive. One alleged flaw, however, was retaining the characteristic HD 45 engine vee-angle, which causes excess vibration as well as the loping HD sound.
A factory full fairing was introduced by BMW motorcycles in the R100RS of 1977, the first factory fairing produced in quantity. In 1980, BMW stimulated the “adventure touring” category of motorcycling with its R80G/S. In 1988, BMW was the first motorcycle manufacturer to introduce anti-lock-brakes (ABS) on its sporting K100RS-SE and K1 models.
A 2004 Kawasaki ZX-7RR
Today the Japanese manufacturers, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha dominate the large motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson still maintains a high degree of popularity, particularly in the United States.
Recent years have seen a resurgence in the popularity around the world of many other motorcycle brands, including BMW, Triumph and Ducati, and the emergence of Victory as a second successful mass-builder of big-twin American cruisers.
In November 2006, the Dutch company E.V.A. Products BV Holland announced that the first commercially available diesel-powered motorcycle, its Track T-800CDI, achieved production status. The Track T-800CDI uses a 800 cc three-cylinder Daimler Chrysler diesel engine. However, other manufacturers, including Royal Enfield, had been producing diesel-powered bikes since at least 1965.
Motorcycle traffic in Bangkok
Currently, the largest motorcycle market is the small machines market for the developing world, hence the claim from Indian Hero Honda to be the world’s new biggest bike firm. India has also been the home to the Enfield Cycle Company’s Royal Enfield, since 1995. Enfield India still makes updated versions of the 1955 Royal Enfield Bullet motorcycle.
There is a large demand for small, cheap motorcycles in the “developing world”, and many of the firms meeting that demand now also compete in “developed” markets, such as China’s Hongdou which makes a version of Honda’s venerable CG 125.
Motorcycle taxis are the developing world’s limousines. Scooters, mopeds and motorcycles offer a fast, cheap and risky way around snarled traffic and scarce mass transit, as they can easily squeeze through jams.
Early history and use in the United Kingdom
Pennell, Joseph (February 8 1901). “Some Experiences Of Motor Bicycles”. Journal Of The Society Of Arts XLIX (2,516). http://books.google.com/books?id=pEtDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA181. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1902). The Automobile: A Practical Treatise On The Construction Of Modern Motor Cars Steam, Petrol, Electric And Petrol-Electric: Chapter XXI. Motor Bicycles (1903 ed.). London: Cassell And Company, Limited. pp. 751763. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgdJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA751. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Lavergne, Gerard (1902). The Automobile: Its Construction And Management (Various Chapters). London: Cassell And Company, Limited. http://books.google.com/books?id=rDAaAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Wilson, A. J. (1903). Motor Cycles And How To Manage Them, 6th ed.. London: Iliffe & Sons Limited. http://books.google.com/books?id=vLl-AAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Early history and use in the United States
Lockert, Louis (1899). Petroleum Motor-Cars: Chapter VIII “Motor Bicycles”. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. pp. 6475. http://books.google.com/books?id=cjcMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA64. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
“The Automobile Bicycle”. The Literary Digest XIX (16): 463464. October 14 1899. http://books.google.com/books?id=IUzQAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA463. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1900). Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, Motor Cycles Operated By Steam, Petrol, Electric And Petrol-Electric: Chapter XI. Automobile Bicycles And Tricycles. New York: Munn & COmpany. pp. 175215. http://books.google.com/books?id=PHDVAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA175. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
“Interesting Notes. Single Motor Bicycles”. The School Journal LX (22): 632. June 2 1900. http://books.google.com/books?id=ePgBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA632. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Krarup, M.C. (November 1900). The Field For Motorcycles: Motorcycling Vs. Motoring. XXXVII. pp. 207212. http://books.google.com/books?id=orMUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA207. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Bill, L. H. (August 1902). “The Poor Man’s Automobile”. Overland Monthly, And Out West Magazine XL (2): 197198. http://books.google.com/books?id=1gYNAQAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PA197. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Burr, H. Walter (December 1902). Up Mount Hamilton On A Motor Cycle. XL. pp. 556561. http://books.google.com/books?id=1gYNAQAAIAAJ&pg=RA8-PA556.
“Possibilities of the Motorcycle”. The Automobile XIII (4): 123. July 27 1903. http://books.google.com/books?id=Tug7AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA123. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1904). Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements And Novelties Of Construction: Road And Vehicle Devices, Types Of Motor Bicycles. New York: The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company. pp. 215216. http://books.google.com/books?id=81BJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA215. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
“Motor Bicycles for Medical Men”. The Medical World XXIII (10). October 1905. http://books.google.com/books?id=attxAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA403. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Cummings, C. E. (February 1906). “An Idyl Of The Tireless Bike”. Recreation XXIV (2): 127130. http://books.google.com/books?id=LPQXAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA127. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
Bashore, S. D. (July 1906). “The Motor Cycle For Physicians”. The Texas State Journal of Medicine II (3): 9293. http://books.google.com/books?id=RrEDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA92. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
“Mail Collection By Motor Van”. The Commercial Vehicle III (7). July 1908. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZFIgAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA148. Retrieved 2009-08-15. “An experiment is being conducted by the Post-office … with the use of a motorcycle van … of the “Indian” type”.
“Development Of The Motor Cycle Van: Increasing Use Of This Type Of Light Package Delivery Motor Vehicle Noted Both Here And Abroad”. The Commercial Vehicle III (10): 227228. October 1908. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZFIgAAAAMAAJ&&pg;=RA1-PA227. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
^ a b “The Past – 1800s: First motorcycle”. The History and Future of Motorcycles and motorcycling – From 1885 to the Future, Total Motorcycle Website. http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/future.htm#1800s. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ Daimler, Paul (December 1901). “The Development Of The Petroleum Automobile”. Engineering Magazine XXII (3): 350. http://books.google.com/books?id=HgXOAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA358. Retrieved 2009-08-15. “Illustration “The Original Daimler Motorcycle”".
^ a b c Ian Chadwick (June 30, 2001). “An overview of the British motorcycle industry and its collapse”. British Motorcycle Manufacturers. http://www.ianchadwick.com/motorcycles/britbikes/index.html. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ “Brief History of the Marque: Hildebrand & Wolfmuller”. Cybermotorcycle.com, European Motorcycle Universe. http://www.cybermotorcycle.com/euro/brands/hildebrand_wolfmuller.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ “Theatrical Gossip” (PDF). The New York Times. 25 November 1895. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9B07E5DB1139E033A25756C2A9679D94649ED7CF&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
^ Harley-Davidson: At the Creation
^ “Our History”. Berkeley Police Department Online, City of Berkeley, CA. http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/police/history/history.html. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ a b “HD History: Timeline – 1930s”. Harley-Davidson USA (2001-2007 H-D). http://www.harley-davidson.com/wcm/Content/Pages/H-D_History/history_1930s.jsp?HDCWPSession=lG1xFnTQTTXKR0p6wpHB1N1cHtzdJ1250h8CvxtWctfBkvrFnRG4!-74508550!1457951189&locale=en_US. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ “Post 1953 Indian Motorcycle History”. www.cycletownusa.com. http://www.cycletownusa.com/post1953.html. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ “British Motorcycles of the 1930s”. www.webBikeWorld.com, webWorld International, LLC (2001-2007). http://www.webbikeworld.com/books/british-motorcycles-1930.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ a b “Freedom and Postwar Mobility: 1946-1958″. The Art of the Motorcycle, Guggenheim Museum. http://www.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/past_exhibitions/motorcycle/motorcycle.html. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
^ Bill Stermer (January/February 2008). “1977 BMW R100RS”. Motorcycle Classics. http://www.motorcycleclassics.com/motorcycle-reviews/2008-01-01/bmw-r100rs.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
^ “The first commercially-available diesel motorcycle”. www.Gizmag.com (November 20, 2006). http://www.gizmag.com/go/6493/. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ “Diesel motorbikes”. Journey to Forever. http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_bikes.html. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ “Hongdou Group: Manufacturer & Exporter . . .”. International Department, Hongdou Motorcycle Co. Ltd. http://www.aupamotor.com/. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
^ Daniel Michaels. “Two-Wheel Taxis Tap Upscale Market in Paris”. Startup Journal – Enterprise, The Wall Street Journal – Center for Entrepreneurs (2007 Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). http://startup.wsj.com/columnists/enterprise/20060125-michaels.html. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
The Art of the Motorcycle at the Orlando Museum of Art.
The Future of Motorcycles – An Opinion – Before the future, we have to understand the past.
Categories: Motorcycles | Motorcycling | History of technologyHidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2009 | All articles lacking in-text citations | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2008
Computer role-playing games (CRPGs) are a special genre of personal computer games that bring the tabletop role-playing encounter of games such as Dungeons & Dragons to the computer screen. This genre includes classics such as Ultima and The Bard’s Tale as w
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Brief History Of Board Games And Its Influence
How does the picture of pharaoh’s, 2000 years ago, sitting in their chamber, and playing a board game sound to you? Quite amazing, right! Moreover, you though board games are a recent innovation. Board games have been in circulation for the last 4000 years amongst the major civilizations of the world, albeit in different forms.
Our ancestors felt that board games actually helped in developing the literacy skill of the people. Children and adults alike, they were resplendent about board games. Some of the traditional board games of whose we know their modern names are Tabula (1st century AD, now known as Backgammon), Droughts (3000 BC, now known as Checkers), Mah Jong (4000 years ago), and Chaturanga (4000 years ago, now known as Chess).
If you still find it unbelievable, you cannot refute the archaeological evidence unearthed in ancient Egypt, dating back around 3500 BC. Similarly, the American board game Patolli has its origins in the Mayan civilizations.
Traditional board games were prevalent in all major traditions and customs around the world. Therefore, it is not surprising that play puzzle games have gleefully found place in the 21st century. Its influence has been historical, transcending thousands of years.
These days gaming consoles are a passe, it is the age of online games. Board online games are seen in thousands in equally large number of gaming portals. Some come for free and some other are paid games. One can easily download the games and play offline too. Play board games now in either single or multiplayer versions. You play against the computer in single version and you play against other competitors in the multiplayer version, which is online.
Board games are roughly divided into two categories:
- Strategy Games: Also known as Dice Games, strategy games require shrewd thinking and clever movement of board chips. The rolling of the dice makes or breaks the game. If the opponent outwits you, you are sent to the starting place once again. The game conducts with two dices to attain variation of numbers.
- Race Games: It is an easier and uncomplicated version of strategy games. The player moves forward the chips according to the total number shown by the dice. The player reaching the finishing point first wins the game. Strategy games take longer time than race games.
There is no shortage of online board games. Once you find a good gaming portal, you can spend hours churning your mind and getting entertained. If online games do not suit you yet, opt for traditional board games easily available in the markets like Monopoly, Jeopardy, or Cranium.
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www.WatchMojo.com travels back to March 9 1959 to learn more about the inspiration behind Ruth Handler’s teenage fashion model doll Barbie, aka. Barbara Millicent Roberts. Named after her daughter Barbara, Barbie is the most successful doll ever, celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009.
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The History of Silly Putty
Almost everyone in America is familiar with Silly Putty. The sort of liquid, sort of solid toy (to be technical it’s a non-Newtonian fluid!) has been loved by both children and adults since its inception. But have you ever wondered how Silly Putty was invented? And how did it become so popular? The answers are found when taking a look back at the history of Silly Putty.
The story starts during World War II. Rubber had become a vital resource for the production of military products like tires and boots. In the United States rubber was so scarce that it was rationed for citizens. People were encouraged to make do with what rubber products that had while the government researched synthetic alternatives.
One inventor working for General Electric, a Mr. James Wright, discovered that mixing boric acid with silicone oil produced a material with unique properties. It was gooey…it was bouncy…and it would stretch farther than regular rubber. Perhaps because of its uniqueness, the material was put on the shelf for several years, as it was not a good replacement for rubber. Despite Wright’s efforts to have other scientists experiment with the material, no uses could be found.
That is until 1949 when a toy store owner by the name of Ruth Fallgatter and marketing consultant Peter Hodgson teamed up to market the bouncing putty. They ran an ad in a catalog selling the unique putty for .00. It quickly became one of the best selling items in the catalog. While Fallgatter did not wish to pursue further, Hodgson saw the potential. He bought a batch of the putty to package 1 oz portions inside plastic eggs. This is when the name Silly Putty was born. Hodgson was soon rewarded…250,000 eggs of Silly Putty were sold in just three days.
While originally marketed to adults, by 1955 the majority of consumers were children under the age of 12. In 1957 the first television commercials for Silly Putty were aired during the Howdy Doody Show. By 1961 the novelty had stretched across the globe, gaining popularity in Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and the Soviet Union. Perhaps the ultimate testimonial to its popularity, Apollo 8 astronauts brought Silly Putty to the moon.
Peter Hodgson died in 1976, and Silly Putty was sold to Binney and Smith, the makers of Crayola products. By 1987 Silly Putty was selling over two million eggs every year, and it remains one of the most popular toys in the world today.
The author has been involved with making and selling toys and novelties for over 10 years. You can find a wide variety of novelty items and science supplies at his website www.AFScience.com
Lego and its history
Lego toy is never going to be out of the date, it has been a part of childhood for more than three generations. Almost everyone under 50 years old has played with these plastic bricks of imagination. The earliest form of Lego toy is designed in 1949, Lego company introduced the automatic binding bricks which could be assembled together as they are having four to eight studs. The first 200 pieces of different Lego toys was born then in Denmark.
Creativity is the key to Lego. Children and adults alike can use their imaginations to design whatever they can picture. The easy to manipulate and interlock blocks allow for easy construction of projects. The sets can all be interchanged, so it is possible to use parts and pieces with one set in combination with another. They can assemble those plastic toy bricks that can be easily changed into buildings, space ships, vehicles, boats, trains and other toys. The key is that the child gets to assemble the toy from the basic building blocks. Each toy can be assembled, disassembled and reassembled in enough new shapes and forms to tickle the imagination and stretch the young people’s creativity.
As time goes by, there are remarkable development in Lego Company, and Lego toys are also improved in their designation, materials, technical, customize and imaginations. The Lego fans also increase from young kids to all age of people. Lego is much more that the simple blocks invented in 1949. It spreads from toys to theme parks, movies, and CDs. Lego building blocks and other products are distributed around the world. The reputation of Lego products is as same as Disney land. That’s really a great success of these tiny plastic bricks which symbolize the great creativity. The video game was first released in 2005 and is based the actual Star Wars Trilogy that began in the late 1970′s and early 1980′s.
Many parents feel that children spend too much time with high tech toys, and are forgetting about the traditional fan toys. Lego is able to help your children to develop creativity, imagination as well as motor skills in building and constructing their mind pictures and projects. Children of all ages love Lego, and with the new theme packages even adults will enjoy playing. The good news for the parents is that you can have good chance to build love relationship with your children if you play Lego with them.